UK

UK Threats and Measures

Bycatch

The two main species affected by fishing in UK waters are the harbour porpoise and the shortbeaked common dolphin. All Reports to the European Commission on activities conducted by the UK under Regulation 812/2004, and under Article 12(4) of the Habitats Directive, provide details of the monitoring work undertaken and estimates of bycatch.

UK Conservation Research

2.1 UK surveillance and monitoring programme

The Sea Mammal Research Unit has used spatial modelling to estimate abundance and explore species-habitat relationships of cetaceans in European Atlantic waters. The analysis combined data from SCANS-II (surveyed in 2005), CODA (surveyed in 2007) and the Faroes block of TNASS (surveyed in 2007).

UK Laws and Regulations

The Marine Management Organisation (MMO) uses an intelligence led risk based enforcement model to direct enforcement activities and resources. Any intelligence received by the MMO in relation to offences against cetaceans or anthropogenic impacts in MPAs designated for them is considered and appropriate enforcement action taken. As part of the Marine Licensing process for offshore construction, the MMO require and monitor the implementation of Marine Mammal Mitigation Protocols (MMMPs) to mitigate against harm and disturbance to cetaceans, including for piling work on wind farms.