The Marine Management Organisation (MMO) uses an intelligence led risk based enforcement model to direct enforcement activities and resources. Any intelligence received by the MMO in relation to offences against cetaceans or anthropogenic impacts in MPAs designated for them is considered and appropriate enforcement action taken. As part of the Marine Licensing process for offshore construction, the MMO require and monitor the implementation of Marine Mammal Mitigation Protocols (MMMPs) to mitigate against harm and disturbance to cetaceans, including for piling work on wind farms.
Sanctuaries and protected areas
The core legal framework in New Zealand for the protection of cetaceans includes the following:
• The Marine Mammals Protection Act 1978 (this provides for the full protection of cetaceans in New Zealand as well as the compulsory reporting of any capture of marine mammals).
• The Marine Mammals Protection Regulations 1992 (this prescribes the behaviour of persons, vessels, aircraft and vehicles in the vicinity of marine mammals).
The following MPAs are in place within UK waters and specifically name cetaceans as a qualifying feature.
The government of Brazil established two large Federal Marine Protected Areas in 2018, including the two most remote islands of the national territory - the São Pedro and São Paulo archipelagos - and also the chain of submarine mountains that connects the Brazilian continental shelf to the Trindade and Martin Vaz Archipelago.